Segment B: The Mole
Segment B: The Mole
This segment examines the mole and Avagadro's number. The students continue their exploration of dimensional analysis.
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the use of the modern atomic theory and periodic law to explain the characteristics of atoms and elements.
Construct an explanation that relates the relative abundance of isotopes of a particular element to the atomic mass of the element.
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how the Law of Conservation of Matter is used to determine chemical composition in compounds and chemical reactions.
Use mathematics and computational thinking to apply concepts of the mole and Avogadro's number to conceptualize and calculate
- percent composition
- empirical/molecular formulas
- mass, moles, and molecules relationships
- molar volumes of gases
Use mathematics and computational thinking to identify and solve different types of reaction stoichiometry problems (i.e., mass to moles, mass to mass, moles to moles, and percent yield) using significant figures.
atomic mass unit - equals 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom.
Avagadro's number - the number of atoms in a mole, equal to 6.02x10^23 atoms.
conversion factor - a ratio expressed as a fraction that equals one.
dimensional analysis - the sequential application of conversion factors expressed as fractions and arranged so that any dimensional unit can be cancelled out until the desired set of dimensional units is obtained.
empirical formula - the simplest formula of a compound expressed as the smallest possible ratio of the elements.
equivalence statement - a statement that shows the quantities and units that are equal to each other.
excess reactant - the reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when a reaction stops once the limiting reactant is completely consumed.
limiting reactant - the reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product formed.
molar mass - the mass, in grams, of a mole of a substance.
molar volume - the volume of one mole of any gas at standard temperature and pressure.
mole - The SI unit that measures the amount of matter a substance has; one mole is equal to 6.022x10^23 representative particles, also known as Avagadro's number.
mole ratio - the ratio of moles of one substance to the moles of another substance in a balanced equation.
molecular formula - a formula which states the exact number and type of each atom present in a molecule of a substance.
percent composition - the percentage by mass of each element in a compound.
percent yield - the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield of a material.
stoichiometry - the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction.
theoretical yield - the amount of product formed from the complete conversion of a limiting reactant in a chemical reaction.
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