Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering.
Science & Engineering Practices
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Students should have opportunities to plan and carry out several different kinds of investigations during their K-12 years. At all levels, they should engage in investigations that range from those structured by the teacher—in order to expose an issue or question that they would be unlikely to explore on their own (e.g., measuring specific properties of materials)— to those that emerge from students’ own questions. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 61)
activation energy - the minimum amount of energy that reactants must possess in order to undergo a specific reaction.
catalyst - a substance that provides a lower energy pathway for reactants to convert to products without getting used up or changing itself.
collision theory - a theory that states that particles must collide in order to react.
effective collision - collisions that result in a successful reaction.
ideal gas - gas that follows the behavior described by kinetic molecular theory.
ineffective collision - collisions that do not result in a successful reaction.
kinetic energy - the energy of motion.
kinetic molecular theory - A theory of the thermodynamic behavior of matter, especially the relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature in gases, based on the dependence of temperature on the kinetic energy of the particles of a substance.
reaction rate - the change in concentration of a reactant or product over time.
Georgia Standards of Excellence
SC4Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how to refine the design of a chemical system by applying engineering principles to manipulate the factors that affect a chemical reaction.
SC4.aPlan and carry out an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of changing concentration, temperature, and pressure on chemical reactions. (Clarification statement: Pressure should not be tested experimentally.)
SC4.bConstruct an argument using collision theory and transition state theory to explain the role of activation energy in chemical reactions. (Clarification statement: Reaction coordinate diagrams could be used to visualize graphically changes in energy (direction flow and quantity) during the progress of a chemical reaction.)
SC5Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the Kinetic Molecular Theory to model atomic and molecular motion in chemical and physical processes.
SC5.aPlan and carry out an investigation to calculate the amount of heat absorbed or released by chemical or physical processes. (Clarification statement: Calculation of the enthalpy, heat change, and Hess’s Law are addressed in this element.)
Request Teacher Toolkit
The Chemistry Matters teacher toolkit provides instructions and answer keys for labs, experiments, and assignments for all 12 units of study. GPB offers the teacher toolkit at no cost to Georgia educators. Complete and submit this form to request the teacher toolkit. You only need to submit this form one time to get materials for all 12 units of study.