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Acids and Bases Part I

In segment G, our host introduces acids and bases, two types of solutions made of chemical compounds. In the classroom, the students and teacher investigate the properties of acids and bases and test household substances with cabbage juice to see if they are an acid or a base.

In segment G, our host introduces acids and bases, two types of solutions made of chemical compounds. In the classroom, the students and teacher investigate the properties of acids and bases and test household substances with cabbage juice to see if they are an acid or a base.

Premiere Date: August 7, 2016 | Runtime: 00:07:36

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7G Note Taking Guide & Segment Questions
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Crosscutting Concepts

System and System Models

Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering.

Patterns

Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them.

Science & Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Students at any grade level should be able to ask questions of each other about the texts they read, the features of the phenomena they observe, and the conclusions they draw from their models or scientific investigations. For engineering, they should ask questions to define the problem to be solved and to elicit ideas that lead to the constraints and specifications for its solution. (NRC Framework 2012, p. 56)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Students should have opportunities to plan and carry out several different kinds of investigations during their K-12 years. At all levels, they should engage in investigations that range from those structured by the teacher—in order to expose an issue or question that they would be unlikely to explore on their own (e.g., measuring specific properties of materials)— to those that emerge from students’ own questions. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 61)

Vocabulary

acid - substances that ionize in solutions to form H^+ ions.

amphoteric - a substance that can be an acid or a base. 

Arrhenius Model - in aqueous solutions, acids form hydrogen ions (H^+). 

base - substances that ionize in solutions and form OH^- ions.

binary acids - acids that do not contain oxygen in their chemical formula. 

boiling point elevation - occurs when the boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent alone.

Bronsted-Lowry Model - this model states that any compound that can transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. 

colligative properties - properties of the solution that are different than those of a pure solvent by itself.

dilution - the process of adding more solvent to a solution. 

electrolysis - the decomposition of water. 

freezing point depression - a colligative property that describes how the freezing point of a solution is lowered compared to the freezing point of the pure solvent. 

heterogeneous mixture - a combination of two or more substances in which the original substances are separated into physically distinct regions with differing properties. 

homogeneous mixture - a combination of two or more substances that have uniform composition and chemical properties throughout; also known as a solution. 

insoluble - a solid, liquid, or gas that will not dissolve in a particular solvent.

Lewis Model - bases donate pairs of electrons and acids accept pairs of electrons. 

mass percent - a way of expressing how concentrated a solution is; is equal to the mass of the solute in a solution divided by the total mass of the solution and multiplying by 100. 

mixture - a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. 

molality - a ratio of moles of solute to the mass of the solvent in kilograms.

molarity - a ratio of moles of solute to the volume of the solution in liters. 

oxyacids - acids that contain oxygen in their chemical formula. 

pure substance - a material that has a constant composition and has consistent properties throughout the sample. 

saturated solution - a solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature. 

saturation point - the point at which no more solute can be dissolved in the solution at that particular temperature. 

solubility - the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature to produce a saturated solution. 

solute - the substance that is being dissolved in a solution. 

solution - a liquid mixture in which the solute is uniformly distributed within the solvent. 

solvent - the substance that is present in a greater amount in a solution.

supersaturated solution - a solution that is holding more dissolved solute than what it normally would hold at that temperature. 

Georgia Standards of Excellence

SC2Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the chemical and physical properties of matter resulting from the ability of atoms to form bonds.

SC2.eAsk questions about chemical names to identify patterns in IUPAC nomenclature in order to predict chemical names for ionic (binary and ternary), acidic, and inorganic covalent compounds.

SC6Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties that describe solutions and the nature of acids and bases.

SC6.fUse mathematics and computational thinking to compare, contrast, and evaluate the nature of acids and bases in terms of percent dissociation, hydronium ion concentration, and pH. (Clarification statement: Understanding of the mathematical relationship between negative logarithm of the hydrogen concentration and pH is not expected in this element. Only a conceptual understanding of pH as related to acid/basic conditions is needed.)

SPS6Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain the properties of solutions.

SPS6.dObtain and communicate information to explain the relationship between the structure and properties (e.g., pH and color change in the presence of an indicator) of acids and bases. (Clarification statement: Limited to only the structure of simple acids and bases (e.g., HCl and NaOH) that demonstrates the presence of an H+ or OH-.

SPS6.ePlan and carry out investigations to detect patterns in order to classify common household substances as acidic, basic, or neutral.

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