Modeling can begin in the earliest grades, with students’ models progressing from concrete “pictures” and/or physical scale models (e.g., a toy car) to more abstract representations of relevant relationships in later grades, such as a diagram representing forces on a particular object in a system. (NRC Framework, 2012, p. 58)
constant - also known as the controlled variable, any factor that is kept the same during an experiment.
hypothesis - a tentative explanation or prediction that can be tested by further investigation.
manipulated variable - also know as the independent variable, the one factor that changes within an experimental group.
meniscus - the curved surface at the top of the liquid in a tube.
model - a physical, conceptual, or mathematical representation of a real phenomenon whose purpose is to explain and predict what happens in real life.
observation - any information gathered using any of your five senses or lab instruments.
qualitative data - measurements that do not include numbers.
quantitative data - measurements that include numbers.
replication - data collected by different teams from samples gathered at the same location.
responding variable - also known as the dependent variable, the variable that is being measured as a result of the experiment.
significant figures - a term that represents the precision of a measurement.
Georgia Standards of Excellence
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